Would be so nice if you’d ibidem-ize my work
Now that you know how to quote the right way (not yet? Check the first post of this series), here you will learn the most important points on title identifiers such as ISBN, ISSN and DOI, which you should always quote as far as possible at the end of your bibliographical entry, to give your reader several options to locate each reference. If you don’t know what those acronyms are all about yet, don’t worry, you will after reading this post. I will also introduce you to the author-date system, the referencing style used by academics all over the world. Let’s start with the identification codes, i.e. with codes to identify sources such as books, serial and digital publications.
What do these acronyms stand for?
The most common title identifier stands for International Standard Book Number; you will find it in each published book. By the ISBN number, book handling becomes easier for everybody implied in book sales: the publishing houses, the bookshops, the libraries and… for you as a reader, an author, and a scientific bibliographer.
The e stands for electronic (you guessed it, yes) and it is used for the digital version of a book; if a book was launched only in digital format, the ISBN automatically is the eISBN—it’s the same number. If it was first published as a print version, you may have to look for an extra eISBN number for the digital copy.
The International Standard Serial Number is used for serial resources such as magazines, newspapers or yearbooks.
It works like the eISBN but it is not for books but for periodicals. Yes, you guessed it again.
The Digital Object Identifier is a code for electronic objects. Now you may want to argue that an ISBN is a digital object identifier as well. And you are right, but while ISBN identifies any monography (remember?) in any media, DOI only identifies online publications, no matter their extent, that is, with a DOI you can identify parts of the whole, such as chapters, graphs, or tables. This object identification is necessary because a URL does not mark the object itself but its location in the web. A DOI is unchangeable and is not linked to a determined storage place; it is a permanent URL which means it does not only serve the purpose of object identification but also takes you to its location as well. What’s really interesting about DOI is its address function, and also the online identification for publications.
The author-date system
Now that you are familiar to the most common identification codes for publications, let us focus on the author-date system, also known as Harvard style. If you want to become a part on the international scientific community, you just need it because it is commonly accepted as the citation style of choice. Harvard (as it is also called by insiders J) covers both referencing within the text (including the author and year of publication) and organizing your bibliographical data, usually at the end of your work. As we have dealt with the reference list in further detail in the first post of this series, we will just concentrate on the ways of referencing in the text at this point. There are basically two types of referencing in your text:
When you think that the author’s statement is really what you want to say, you can take the original and copy it down word by word. This citation could look like this:
“Through increasingly accurate description and negotiation of observations from different sources of data, we can get closer, perhaps not to an ‘objective’ result, but to shared replicable experiences and results” (Hansen 2003: 40).
Or like this:
Hansen (2003:40) states that “through increasingly accurate description and negotiation of observations from different sources of data, we can get closer, perhaps not to an ‘objective’ result, but to shared replicable experiences and results.”
In most cases, however, you should apply the way described in 2 below.
- Paraphrase or summary
If you want to express something another person said in your own words, you could summarize or paraphrase it, for example like this:
Hansen (2003:40) states that by triangulating different methods it could be possible to gain some intersubjective insights.
Of course, you have to offer the complete data for this reference in the bibliography, at the end of your text.
You can take PETRA’s style sheet as an example for a reference list style, which includes some advice on the handling of the identification codes introduced above as well.
First post of this series (2011). You can quote me on this one – please do.
Monash University Library (2006). Harvard (author-date) style examples.
PETRA’s style sheet (2011)
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Libraries (2009). ISBN, ISSN, DOI and URN:NBN.
Williams College Libraries (2009). Chicago Manual of Style.
by P. Klimant